CBSE Class 12 exams 2018: Here is the detail syllabus on Geography


CBSE Class 12 syllabus 2018:  The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) will conduct board examinations from February for the coming academic year 2019. The board has already released a list of vocational subjects for the examinations that will be conducted from February to March 2019, the schedule and date of the examinations will be released later.

From next year, the students need to get a minimum of 33 per cent marks in theory and practical combined to declare pass in the subject to get pass in the Class 10 examinations.

CBSE Class 12 syllabus 2018: Here is the complete syllabus on Geography 


A. Fundamentals of Human Geography (Periods 85)

Unit I: Human Geography: Nature and Scope (Periods 5)

Unit II: People (Periods 20) • Population of the world – distribution, density and growth; • Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change; • Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition; • Human development – concept; selected indicators, international comparisons.

Unit III: Human Activities (Periods 28) • Primary activities – concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agriculture and allied activities – some examples from selected countries; • Secondary activities – concept; manufacturing: agro-processing, household, small scale, large scale; people engaged in secondary activities – some examples from selected countries; • Tertiary activities – concept; trade, transport and communication; services; people engaged in tertiary activities – some examples from selected countries; • Quaternary activities – concept; knowledge based industries; people engaged in quaternary activities – some examples from selected countries.

Unit IV: Transport, Communication and Trade (Periods 20) • Land transport – roads, railways – rail network; trans-continental railways; • Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes; • Air transport – Intercontinental air routes; • Oil and gas pipelines; • Satellite communication and cyber space; • International trade – Basis and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in International trade.
Unit V: Human Settlements (Periods 12) • Settlement types – rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.


B. India: People and Economy (Periods 85)

Unit I: People (Periods 15) • Population – distribution, density and growth; composition of population: linguistic and religious; rural-urban population change through time – regional variations; occupation

• Migration: international, national – causes and consequences; • Human development – selected indicators and regional patterns; • Population, environment and development.

Unit II: Human Settlements (Periods 10)

• Rural settlements – types and distribution

• Urban settlements – types, distribution and functional classification.

Unit III: Resources and Development (Periods 30)

• Land resources – general land use; agricultural land use – major crops; agricultural development and problems, common property resources

• Water resources – availability and utilization – irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods – rain water harvesting and watershed management (one case study related with participatory watershed management to be introduced)

• Mineral and energy resources – metallic and non-metallic minerals and their distribution; conventional and non-conventional energy sources

• Industries – types and distribution; industrial location and clustering; changing pattern of selected industries – iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location

• Planning in India – target area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study).

Unit IV: Transport, Communication and International Trade (Periods 15)

• Transport and communication — roads, railways, waterways and airways; oil and gas pipelines; national electric grids; communication networkings – radio, television, satellite and internet;

• International trade — changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports.

Unit V: Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems (One case study to be introduced for each topic) (Periods 15)

• Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal

• Urbanisation-rural-urban migration; problem of slums

• Land Degradation.